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Creatine Dosage

October 19, 2009

How much Creatine Monohydrate should I take?

By Alfredo Franco-Obregón, PhD

The Basics

It is commonly recommended that a person divide their supplementing regimes into three separate phases. These have been termed the loading, maintenance and wash-out phases. The sum of these three phases is known as one period. Several periods can be chained together in a process known as periodizing.

Loading Phase: The purpose of the loading phase is to rapidly fill your muscle creatine stores within a brief period of only a few days.

Maintenance Phase: As it’s name implies, the maintenance dose should just compensate for the amount of creatine used on a daily basis in order to maintain the stores full.

Wash-out Phase: The wash-out period allows the body to recover from the artificially high creatine levels observed during supplementation that the body would not ordinarily encounter in everyday life. The wash-out period is mainly a precaution, since the long term consequences of creatine supplementation are not well known or understood.

Period: The cycling between these three phases has been termed periodizing. A period begins with each new loading phase and ends with the wash-out phase.

Loading

In the original scientific study that devised the loading strategy of taking creatine, a person’s creatine dose is a function of their weight (see reference below). This makes sense since a person’s capacity to store creatine is determined by their amount of muscle mass. During the loading phase, 0.3 grams of creatine should be taken for each kilogram of bodyweight.

NOTE: A scoop is usually provided by the manufacturer in the creatine container. The instructions on the side of the container should indicate how many grams of creatine are provided in each scoop of creatine. One scoop’s worth of creatine is often referred to as serving size.

How to calculate your weight in kilograms.

To calculate your creatine dose, you must first know your weight in kilograms. To convert you weight in pounds to kilograms, simply divide your weight in pounds by 2.2. For example, a 154 pound person would weigh 70 kilograms; 154 / 2.2 = 70.

How to calculate your creatine dose.

To calculate your loading dose, simply multiply your weight in kilograms by 0.3. For example, a 70 kilogram person would take 21 grams of creatine per day during the loading phase; 0.3 x 70 = 21.

For those of you who would rather not do the math, a table of creatine dose is provided below

Creatine Dose
(/day)Weight

Pounds

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

Kilograms

45.4

50.0

54.5

59.0

63.6

68.2

72.7

77.2

81.8

86.3

90.9

Dose
(approximate grams)

Loading

14

15

16

18

19

20

22

23

25

26

27

Maint.

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.2

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.7

Below your weight is your corresponding creatine dose

How to take your creatine dose.

Divide the loading dose into 4 equal parts; take one part every 4-5 hours. In other words, if your loading dose is 20 grams per day, you would take 5 grams of creatine four times a day during the loading phase. For the best results completely dissolve this amount of creatine powder into at least 16 ounces of fruit juice. Take one part with your morning meal, another at lunch, one immediately after your workout, and one before you go to bed. Again, do not take creatine immediately before you work out. The reason for this will be given in a subsequent newsletter. The loading phase should not exceed 5 days.

NOTE: As far as creatine is concerned, more isn’t necessarily better. During the five days of loading, an equivalent of one day’s creatine dose (~20 grams) is absorbed by our muscles. This is equal to about 1/5, or 20%, of our pre-existing muscle creatine reserves. After five days, creatine absorption by skeletal muscle declines precipitously. This can be either because the muscle is full or because creatine entry at the muscle surface is being blocked. No matter the reason, it doesn’t make sense (economically or physiologically) to continue creatine loading for more than 5 days.

Maintenance

Normally, our creatine stores degrade at a rate of about 2 grams per day. This amount would need to be replaced each day in order to “maintain” the stores full. The purpose of the maintenance dose is to replace this loss amount of creatine. During the maintenance phase, reduce the creatine dose to 0.03 grams of creatine per kilogram of body weight. This is equivalent to 2.1 grams of creatine per day for a 70 kilogram (154 pound) person; 70 x 0.03=2.1. It is recommended that the maintenance phase not exceed 4-5 weeks. Take the maintenance dose immediately following your workout.

Wash-out

Following the maintenance phase a wash-out period should be incorporated to allow the body to recover from abnormally high creatine concentrations. The commonly recommended duration of the wash-out period is one month. Usually our muscle creatine reserves return to their original levels after one month of stopping supplementation. After washout, the next round of supplementation may commence again.

Reference:

Hultman, E., Soderlund K., Timmons, J. A., Cederblad, G. and Greenhaff, P. L. (1996) Muscle creatine loading in men. Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume 81(1), pages 232-237

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4 Comments leave one →
  1. October 19, 2009 3:01 PM

    Loading phase starts today @ 15g

  2. October 19, 2009 3:14 PM

    What is Creatine?

    Creatine is an organic compound found naturally in your diet, primarily in red meats (beef, lamb, pork) and fish. The normal dietary intake of creatine in omnivores is about 1 gram, but for obvious reasons, intake is much lower in vegetarians.

    The supplemental form of creatine manufactured in the laboratory is a tasteless and odorless white powder that’s moderately soluble in water.

    The most common type of creatine is creatine monohydrate; it’s also the most researched. There are other forms of creatine available on the market but they’re really not worth your money, and we’ll tell you why below.

    Creatine is also made in your body, primarily in the liver, from the precursor amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine at a rate of about 1-2 grams per day. Even though creatine is made of nitrogen-containing amino acids, it’s not considered a protein. Unlike proteins, creatine synthesis doesn’t involve formation of peptide bonds and its degradation doesn’t involve deamination (removal of nitrogen) when excreted from the body by the kidneys.

    Thus, the concern that creatine may harm your kidneys because of nitrogen removal is unwarranted. Since your body has the ability to produce creatine, it’s not considered an essential dietary nutrient, but it is something that you should be adding to your diet, especially if you’re a woman who wants to have muscle with attitude!

    What Does Creatine Do?

    Creatine is sent to your muscles so it can help you work harder. It does this by combining with a phosphate (Pi) molecule to create a compound called phosphocreatine (PCr). Creatine in the form of PCr plays an integral role in energy metabolism within the muscle cell, especially in activities that require short bursts of intense energy, like weight lifting and sprinting.

    It works to sustain energy by helping to replenish ATP, the energy currency of your muscle cells. Basically, if you want your muscles to contract so you can move or lift a weight, you have to expend ATP. When your muscles contract, ATP is broken down to ADP and a phosphate molecule with the help of the enzyme ATPase. This reaction creates the desired end product: energy to allow your muscles to move.

    Rx #1: ATP — — -(ATPase) — — -> ADP + Pi + Energy for muscle movement

    Within your muscles, there’s only a limited supply of ATP. So, if you spend all your ATP without replenishing it, your muscles won’t be able to continually contract and you’ll quickly fatigue. In order to replenish ATP, you need another Pi molecule, which is primarily supplied from the creatine molecule, PCr.

    The Pi is separated from PCr in the creatine kinase reaction and donated to ADP to reform ATP. This reaction allows you to work harder for a longer period of time, which means you can build more muscle and burn more fat without tiring out too quickly.

    Rx #2: PCr + ADP + H+ free Cr + ATP

    The creatine kinase reaction ensures a constant supply of ATP for exercising muscle as long as PCr doesn’t become completely depleted. However, just like ATP, your natural PCr stores in muscle are also limited, and will decline rapidly at the onset of serious exercise.

    For example, during 10 seconds of an intense cycle exercise test in the lab, peak power is reached during the first 5 seconds and declines as the PCr levels in the muscle are depleted. Thus, the concentration of PCr decreases and fatigue quickly sets in.

    Luckily, in recovery from intense exercise, PCr is resynthesized rapidly, such that about 95% of PCr is recreated after 3 to 4 minutes. For this reason, a woman lifting a very heavy weight for 1 to 3 reps will rest for at least three minutes before repeating her next set.

    Why Should We Supplement?

    The best way to enable your body to train harder and prevent premature fatigue is to optimize your muscle stores of PCr and creatine. Research has shown that you can do this by adding more creatine to your diet.

    More than a decade ago, Ron Harris and colleagues published a study documenting an effective strategy for increasing muscle creatine stores by ingesting large amounts of creatine monohydrate.(1) These researchers reasoned that if blood levels of creatine could be elevated above a certain threshold then perhaps a portion of the creatine might “spill over” into muscle.

    A five-gram dose of creatine was found to significantly elevate blood creatine concentrations peaking about one hour after ingestion and returning to baseline levels after 2-3 hours. In order to keep creatine elevated throughout the day, a five-gram dosing regimen every 2 hours for 8 hours was adopted. This creatine dosing protocol maintained for at least two days resulted in significant increases in the total muscle creatine content.

    Subsequent studies have confirmed that this creatine dosing strategy is effective at increasing muscle creatine stores. However, it’s not always necessary to dose this high or for a long period of time because the majority of creatine uptake occurs within the first two days and muscle becomes saturated with creatine in less than seven days at 20-25 grams per day.

    You could also just eat more foods naturally rich in creatine, such as beef, salmon, herring, or pork. But, unless you can stomach at least a kilogram of red meat per day (because 1 kg of meat or certain fish equals about 5 grams of creatine), the only way you’re going to be able to get the recommended dose of creatine is with creatine monohydrate.

    Why Should Women Supplement?

    Although the majority of research with creatine has been conducted in men, there are some solid lines of evidence that indicate women benefit from supplementation as well. Similar to men, women experience significant muscle creatine accumulation and performance enhancement in response to creatine monohydrate. (1)

    In 1997, Vandenberghe and researchers (4) examined the effects of creatine supplementation during a 10 week resistance training program in physically active, but untrained, women. During the 10 week program, all women performed resistance exercises (five sets, 12 repetitions at 70% RM for leg press, shoulder press, squat, leg extension, leg curl, and bench press) for 1 hour three times per week. A 20 gram per day loading dose of creatine for four days was followed by five grams per day for the remainder of the intervention.

    After the four-day loading regimen, muscle PCr levels were increased by 6%, and the five gram maintenance dose was adequate to maintain this increase over the duration of the study. When strength was tested at the end of the 10 week program, women in both groups showed significant improvements in strength in all exercises (which isn’t too surprising given that they were all untrained).

    However, the women taking creatine had a 20-25% greater increase in one rep max strength for the leg press, leg extension, and back squat compared to the women taking nothing.

    In a similar study of strength, Brenner and researchers (5) examined the effect of five weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation using 16 NCAA Division I lacrosse players (age range 18 — 22 years) during their preseason conditioning program. Half of the women were given creatine at a loading dose of 20 grams per day for 7 days, followed by a maintenance dose of two grams a day for the remaining 24. The other women took a placebo. All women completed a resistance-training workout three times per week.

    The results showed that the women taking creatine demonstrated a significantly greater increase in their maximum bench press strength compared with those taking a creatine fake. These authors agreed with Vandenberghe and suggested that creatine likely provided a greater stimulus for training, which helped enhance strength.

    The final study is one by Larson-Meyer and researchers. (6) For 13 weeks, they examined the effects of creatine in 14 female NCAA Division I soccer players. Seven women were given creatine and seven were given a placebo. The women given creatine received 15 grams per day for the first five days followed by five grams per day for the remainder of the study.

    After 13 weeks, women taking creatine had greater gains in maximal bench press and squat strength than the women taking the creatine fake.

    What’s the Bottom Line in Science?

    Overall, these studies support several others that show the beneficial effects of creatine supplementation on strength and weight lifting performance in women.

    Creatine has also been shown in other studies to increase short-duration, high intensity work performance in women (such as HIIT training) and to increase repeat performance of sport activities such as swim sprints. (7-10)

    Does Creatine Always Work for Women?

    Nothing in this world is ever just black or white, especially science. Although you’ve just been given some great evidence that creatine can help make you stronger and improve your anaerobic work capacity, it doesn’t always work this perfectly for every woman.

    In 2006, a research study conducted at Cassandra’s alma mater, University of Alberta, was released that showed a lack of benefit from creatine supplementation in trained women. (11)

    In this 10 week investigation, 26 young resistance trained women were split into two groups. One group was given a placebo and the other was given creatine at a dose of 0.3 grams per kg body mass for the first 7 days (amounting to about 17 grams per day for your average woman) and then given a dose of 0.03 grams per kg for the remainder of the study (about 1.7 grams per day).

    The women trained 4 days a week and were encouraged to increase the amount of weight they could lift each time they trained. After 10 weeks, all women improved their strength in bench press and leg press and increased their training volume, but there were no differences between those women who took a placebo and those that took creatine. The authors concluded that in this study, creatine had no effect on strength or performance in trained women.

    Now, since Cassandra is in the science nerd loop, and since one of the investigators was her former advisor, she had the liberty to do some digging to try and find out why the researchers found no beneficial effects.

    In the paper, the researchers hypothesized that the amount of creatine given in the study may not have been enough to increase the women’s muscle creatine content, which could have lead to the lack of effects. To put it more specifically, other researchers have found that the muscle has to have an increase of at least 20 mmol per kg muscle of creatine to see a potential ergogenic improvement. They also suggested that the women in the study may have been “non-responders” to creatine supplementation.

    With creatine, there are those who benefit from supplementation and those who don’t. These people are referred to as responders and non-responders. The non-responder phenomenon might be related to the type of muscle fiber and size of cross-sectional area of muscle fibers that people possess uniquely.

    Those men and women who have more fast twitch fibers and a larger initial cross-sectional area of all muscle fiber types can increase their muscle creatine more after 7 days than those with fewer fast twitch fibers or smaller muscle cross-sectional area.

    From a gender perspective, women usually have smaller cross-sectional muscle fiber areas of both their fast twitch and slow twitch fiber types. Women also have been suggested to possess a naturally higher average total muscle content of creatine (10%) than their male counterparts. Overall, these physiological differences between men and women may explain why this study showed no effect.

    When Cassandra received a reply from one of the investigators, Dr. Dan Syrotuik, he told her that he still believes that creatine is beneficial for women, but that positive results aren’t always found for reasons he just couldn’t explain.

    Cassandra then hypothesized that creatine will only work if you’re willing to let it work. If you take it but you don’t push yourself to your limit, then you’ll never know if it can make you train harder. That might be what happened in this study.

    All we know is that creatine has a lot of evidence that it helps improve strength and resistance training performance, but the results aren’t always equivocal in either men or women.

    How Do I Become a Responder?

    One possible way to increase your ability to become a responder is to ingest large amounts of simple carbohydrates with each dose of creatine. The purpose of a large dose of carbohydrates, in the amount of about 50 to 100 grams per serving, is to increase blood insulin levels which causes most substances in your blood to be driven into muscle cells for usage or storage.

    However, this large dose of carbohydrate will also drive a lot of that sugar into your fat cells, causing an increase in body weight from fat — something none of us wants.

    Although it’s been shown that insulin can enhance creatine accumulation in muscle, this really only occurs if insulin levels are present at extremely high or supra-physiological concentrations. (12) This is why large doses of carbohydrate are necessary. Thus, consuming normal amounts of carbohydrate won’t have as great of an effect on creatine accumulation in muscle.

    A more practical solution to enhance creatine uptake with the help of insulin is to take creatine with a normal meal or in your post-workout drink. Insulin rises with food intake, especially when the food contains carbohydrate and amino acids from whey protein powder.

    Since most women and men take whey protein and simple carbohydrates after their workout to replenish glycogen and stimulate protein synthesis, that’s also the best time to take your creatine. If you miss this window of opportunity, just ensure that you take creatine with food instead of on an empty stomach.

    Will Creatine Make Me Fat?

    So many women shy away from creatine usage because they’ve heard it comes with a lot of water retention. Indeed, the vast majority of short-term creatine loading studies show a significant increase or a small non-significant increase in body weight up to about 1.5 to 2.0 kg, which is mostly due to retention of body water. Interestingly though, these findings are mostly seen in men, not women.

    However, with that said, keep in mind that it’s just water, not fat. With long term serious lifting, any weight you do gain is mostly muscle. For example, in the Vandenberghe study, the untrained women taking creatine gained an average of 5 pounds of muscle after 10 weeks of lifting and tended to have less body fat compared to the women taking a placebo.

    In trained women, taking creatine slightly increases muscle mass, but has very little effect on weight gain due to water. Thus, it appears that if you’re an experienced trainee, creatine will help improve your strength without causing much water retention. Furthermore, any water accumulated due to the initial introduction of creatine will soon dwindle as the body gets used to it.

    If you’re really worried about water gain and want to avoid it, just ensure that you don’t take a lot of simple carbohydrates with your creatine. Insulin stimulated by a high carb meal is well-known for causing water retention. This is also a reason why figure competitors avoid any sugar when they’re in contest prep mode.

    So, Who’s Taking Creatine and What’s It Doing for Them?

    The science and studies have been laid out for you, but what happens in the real world?

    As a trainer, Jen always recommends that her clients take creatine. Along with Cassandra, she knows that there’s no reason why any beginner or experienced lifter shouldn’t experience the benefits creatine has to offer. Creatine will help make you stronger, which is related to an increase in your muscle size and volume. The more muscle you have, the more you can eat (yay!) and the more you can eat, the more you can grow.

    Here Jen has collected the thoughts of a few of her clients regarding their experiences with creatine:

    Ashley: “When I started weight training, I was very overweight. Discouragingly so. I started taking creatine per Jen’s recommendation and found that the strength increase I gained because of it was the only thing that kept me motivated to go to the gym. I could feel the surge of strength I’d get in my workouts. I just felt stronger as my weight kept going up and up.

    “I went from a 135 pound squat to a 175 pound squat in one month. I just kept telling myself that all these strong, intense training sessions were going to uncover hot muscle someday. That pump and strength seriously kept me going. I’m almost to my goal body composition now and have taken creatine since day one.”

    Amanda: “When I started taking creatine I noticed some big changes. The thing that I loved most about it was the fact that it kept me working hard and pushing weights longer than I could without it. It gave major support!

    “I’ve also seen major strength changes while using this supplement. I was 112 pounds and bench pressing 145 within a short time of introducing creatine. Before starting using it I was at the top of my game pushing 95. I gained two inches in my arms and major shoulder strength. I can lateral raise 20’s, curl 40’s, and do 150 on rows.

    “I wasn’t seeing any kind of successes like this before taking the stuff. What’s best is that as my weights have risen, so has my body shape and image. I look a lot better than when I was weaker. Now I’m strong and sexy. Sounds corny, but it’s true!”

    Sarah: “I was a little hesitant to take creatine at first. However, my hesitation couldn’t have been more wrong. I have no doubt in my mind that I’m way stronger than I was before. I could only do curls with 10 pounds before. In four weeks I’ve increased to 20 pounds! My arms were 10.5 inches around (too small for the muscular legs I was blessed with), and I’ve added an entire inch on my arms as I’ve gotten stronger. I’d tried to make improvements before and never saw results like this. I love creatine.”

    Jen herself has these thoughts to share:

    “I can’t describe to you how much creatine has helped my performance over the years. I wouldn’t dream of going without it. When I first started preparing to become a competitive bodybuilder, I was doing reps on bench at about 90 pounds. I was repping squats at about 135 and bent over rows at about 60. I was curling 15 pounds (per arm) and shoulder press topped out at 15 per arm. Back then I didn’t take any other supplements except fish oil and a multi-vitamin. I’d pretty much come to a standstill.

    “It was then that a trainer friend told me I ought to take creatine. Since I’m the opposite of hesitant, I jumped right on it. I continued to lift with the intensity I’d been using, just with the creatine added into my scheme. At the end of three months, I’d increased my bench to 135, my squat to 165, my bent rows to 90. I was able to curl 25 pounds and my shoulder press went up to 25.

    “I can honestly say that since I wasn’t really incorporating anything extra in my routine, that the strength increase was largely due to the creatine supplementation. I now (performing reps) bench 155, squat 185, bent over row 155, curl 35, and shoulder press 35.

    “I believe that creatine has played a major role in my strength increases. I look the way I do now because I’ve been able to excel at my weights, and I have creatine to thank for a lot of that. I’d never not take it!”

    How Much Creatine Should I Take?

    Both the science and the experts recommend that women take about 3 to 5 grams of creatine monohydrate per day. There’s no need for a loading dose of 20 grams per day, if you don’t want to take it. Avoiding loading will lengthen the time it takes for your muscles to become saturated with creatine, but after about one month of the minimal dose, your muscles will be ready.

    The recommendation of 3 to 5 grams creatine per day came from the fact that in an average healthy person, approximately 2 grams of creatine is broken down and excreted in the urine per day. To ensure that you replace this 2 gram dose of creatine and enhance your muscle content of creatine, take at least 3 grams each day.

    Why is Creatine Monohydrate Better Than Other Types?

    The most popular alternative to creatine monohydrate is a new type of creatine called creatine ethyl ester, or CEE. The claim that it’s an ethyl ester implies that the creatine is covalently bonded to an ethyl group which won’t be ionized in water. As such, this is an alien compound to the body, chemically different to creatine but where a large part of the molecule has a similar shape.

    Being an ester, it also means that the CEE is likely broken down in the gut, inhibiting it from being taken up into the bloodstream for transport to the muscle. A recent study by UK researchers showed that more than 25% of CEE is unavailable after passing through the stomach whereas 99% of creatine monohydrate is available. The CEE appears to be broken down to a byproduct called creatinine and then excreted out of the body.

    No evidence has been tabled that CEE is able to increase the muscle creatine content as effectively as plain creatine monohydrate. If you want to get the real thing and benefit from increased creatine in muscle, then stick with monohydrate and leave CEE alone.

    Bottom Line

    • Creatine monohydrate will help you train harder so that you lift more weight and build more muscle.

    • Creatine won’t make you gain fat, but it will help you gain more muscle.

    • Men are more susceptible to water retention than women, and if you do gain water, it’s only short-term; stick it out and you’ll thank us.

    • Take at least 3 grams creatine monohydrate per day with meals or in your post-workout shake.

    • If you’re a woman and you lift, you better be taking creatine monohydrate every day!

    Editor’s Note: If you’d like to try creatine, pick up a bottle HERE and share your results on the MWA forum!

    About the Authors

    Cassandra Forsythe is a PhD student at the University of Connecticut studying exercise science and nutrition under the supervision of Jeff Volek, PhD, RD. She’ll graduate in May 2008 and then begin her internship to become a Registered Dietitian. She’s a certified sports nutritionist through the ISSN and holds a BS and MS in Nutritional Sciences. In September 2007, her first diet and weight loss book entitled The Perfect Body Plan written for Women’s Health magazine, will be released. Then, in December 2007, her second book with Lou Schuler and Alwyn Cosgrove, entitled Lift Like a Man, Look Like a Goddess, will be available in bookstores near you.

    Jennifer Heath is certified personal trainer through the American College of Sports Medicine, a mother of four, and a fitness & commercial model. Her beauty, brains, and strength combined with her ability to balance a hectic daily schedule has allowed her to publish several online fitness articles, produce two effective weight loss manuals, and unselfishly help hundreds of men and women achieve the body of their dreams. She balances work, family and training to be one of the most knowledgeable and effective female lifestyle coaches in this industry. For more information about Jen, or to seek out her services and products, check out her website at http://www.jenheath.com.

    References

    1) Harris, R.C., K. Söderlund, and E. Hultman. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clinical Science. 83:367-374, 1992.

    2) Volek, J.S., Kraemer, W.J., Bush, J.A., Boetes, M., Incledon, T., Clark, K.l. and Lynch, J.M. Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high intensity resistance exercise. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97:765-770, 1997.

    3) Rawson ER, Volek JS. The effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res 2003;17:822.

    4) Vandenberghe, K., Goris, M., Van Hecke, P., Van Leemputte, M., Vangerven, L.. and Hespel, P. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training. Journal of Applied Physiology 83:2055-2063, 1997.

    5) Brenner M, Walberg-Rankin J, Sebolt D. The effect of creatine supplementation during resistance training in women. J Strength Cond Res 2000; 14(2):207 — 213.

    6) Larson-Meyer DE, Hunter GR, Trowbridge CA, et al. The effect of creatine supplementation on muscle strength and body composition during off-season training in female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 2000; 14(4):434 — 442.

    7) Ziegenfuss TN, Rogers M, Lowery L, et al. Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA Division I athletes. Nutrition 2002; 18:397 — 402.

    8) Stout JR, Eckerson JM, Housh TJ, Ebersole KT. The effects of creatine supplementation on anaerobic working capacity. J Strength Cond Res 1999; 13(2):135 — 138.

    9) Grindstaff PD, Kreider R, Bishop R, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on repetitive sprint performance and body composition in competitive swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr 1997; 7:330 — 346.

    10) Peyrebrune MC, Nevill ME, Donaldson FJ, Cosford DJ. The effects of oral creatine supplementation on performance in single and repeated sprint swimming. J Sport Sci 1998; 16:271 — 279.

    11) Ferguson TB and Syrotuik D. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on body composition and strength indices in experienced resistance trained women.
    J Strength Cond Res. 2006 Nov;20(4):939-46.

    12) Steenge, G.R., J. Lambourne, A. Casey, A. MacDonald, and P.L. Greenhaff. Stimulatory effect of insulin on creatine accumulation in human skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology. 275:E974-E979, 1998.

  3. November 5, 2009 7:43 PM

    It is good to see posts that give truly quality information. Great post. Best Whey Protein Powder, Buy Dymatize Elite Whey Protein Sale, Cheap & Discount Dymatize Whey Protein

  4. January 7, 2010 9:06 PM

    Great explanation about taking creatine before vs. after your workout. I used to split it 1/2 before 1/2 after, now I just have it before. Think another factor that’s ignored often is the ‘mental’ effect. In other words: I tend to get a mental kick knowing I just got my creatine, then go into the gym and pump iron harder. Plus, on the argument of absorption, whenever possible I try to have a day off the gym right after training… so that’ll set in creatine replenishment time.

    Mark Martinez
    Testing out hyper gain creatine like the energizer bunny

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